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La ou les instances d'un bean sont créées par Spring selon la configuration soit sous la forme d'un singleton instance unique ou de prototype une instance est créée à chaque demande au conteneur. Indiquer si le conteneur est capable de fournir une instance du bean dont le nom est fourni en paramètre.

Le type du bean est défini grâce aux generics. Indiquer si un bean dont le nom est fourni en paramètre est un singleton true ou un prototype false. Spring fournit plusieurs implémentations de cette interface. Une implémentation de BeanFactory peut être vue comme une fabrique capable de gérer un ensemble de beans et leurs dépendances.

Une implémentation de BeanFactory permet de stocker des informations sur les JavaBeans qu'elle va gérer. La BeanFactory fournit une instance et gère le cycle de vie du Bean tout en stockant en interne les informations de la définition d'un bean dans une instance de type BeanDefinition. La classe BeanDefinition encapsule toutes les informations utiles au BeanFactory pour créer une instance. Ces informations concernent la classe elle-même mais aussi ses dépendances.

Elle ajoute des fonctionnalités permettant notamment l'accès aux ressources et une gestion d'événements. La gestion d'événements est assurée grâce à la classe ApplicationEvent et à l'interface EventListener. La mise en oeuvre des événements se fait en utilisant le motif de conception observateur. Lorsqu'un événement est émis, il est propagé à chaque bean qui implémente l'interface ApplicationListener. L'implémentation des méthodes de cette interface doit se charger des traitements à exécuter pour l'événement.

Il est possible de définir ses propres événements qui doivent implémenter l'interface ApplicationEvent. La méthode publishEvent de l'interface ApplicationContext permet de demander l'émission synchrone d'un événement. La méthode registerShutdownHook permet de demander au conteneur d'être informé d'un arrêt de la JVM pour lui permettre d'exécuter correctement les traitements liés à la destruction des beans afin de gérer correctement leur cycle de vie.

L'injection de dépendances est un motif de conception qui propose un mécanisme pour fournir à un composant les dépendances dont il a besoin. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Merci à tous Je dois injectes des beans mais dans quel fichier? Cet article est dans le même esprit qu'un article sur Struts: Pour utiliser l'annotation Configuration, il faut obligatoirement que les bibliothèques asm et CGLIB soient dans le classpath.

Préciser une méthode qui sera invoquée lorsque le bean est déchargé du conteneur. Le formulaire a été correctement envoyé. Spring propose plusieurs classes qui encapsulent le conteneur selon la façon dont on souhaite le configurer et les fonctionnalités requises. Il existe deux interfaces principales pour le conteneur selon les fonctionnalités souhaitées:. Pour ces deux interfaces, Spring propose plusieurs solutions pour charger son fichier de configuration. L'utilisation d'une implémentation de BeanFactory est pratique pour une application exécutée dans un environnement possédant des ressources limitées.

La classe XmlBeanFactory permet d'instancier le contexte et de charger sa configuration à partir du contenu d'un fichier de configuration XML. La création d'un ApplicationContext pour une application web peut se faire de deux façons selon la version des spécifications de l'API Servlet implémentée par le conteneur. Pour un conteneur implémentant les spécifications Servlet 2. La servlet ContextLoaderServlet, démarrée au lancement de la webapp, va charger le fichier de configuration.

ContextLoaderListener est utilisée pour charger le ou les fichiers de configuration de l'application web. Le paramètre contextConfigLocation permet de préciser le ou les fichiers de configuration à utiliser. Plusieurs fichiers peuvent être précisés en utilisant un espace, une virgule ou un point virgule comme séparateur. La méthode getBean de l'interface BeanFactory qui attend en paramètre l'identifiant de l'objet permet d'obtenir une instance de cet objet selon la configuration fournie au conteneur. Une surcharge de la méthode getBean possède donc la signature:.

Il n'est plus nécessaire de faire un cast lors de l'invocation de la méthode getBean. Les objets gérés sont les principaux objets de chaque couche contrôleurs, services, DAO, Le nombre d'objets gérés pouvant être important selon la taille de l'application, il est possible de repartir la configuration dans plusieurs fichiers de configuration. La séparation de la configuration dans plusieurs fichiers est particulièrement utile si la taille du fichier de configuration devient importante.

La définition d'un objet doit contenir au minimum un identifiant et le nom pleinement qualifié de sa classe. Il peut aussi contenir: Chaque objet géré par le conteneur doit avoir au moins un identifiant unique qui permet d'y faire référence notamment dans les dépendances. Cet identifiant peut être fourni grâce à l'attribut id. Si aucun identifiant n'est défini pour un objet, le conteneur va lui en assigner un par défaut. Par convention, l'identifiant d'un objet commence par une minuscule. L'attribut name permet de fournir plusieurs identifiants pour un objet, chacun étant séparé par une virgule ou un point virgule.

L'attribut class permet de préciser le nom pleinement qualifié de la classe qui sera utilisée pour créer une nouvelle instance de l'objet. Cet attribut est obligatoire si la configuration ne précise aucun autre moyen pour obtenir une instance. Par défaut, le conteneur invoque un constructeur pour créer une nouvelle instance: Il est possible de demander l'instanciation en invoquant une méthode statique de la classe qui agit comme une fabrique. Le nom de la méthode statique est précisé avec l'attribut factory-method.

Cette méthode statique doit appartenir à la classe car le conteneur va l'invoquer pour obtenir une instance. Elle peut attendre des paramètres.


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Il est aussi possible de demander au conteneur d'invoquer une fabrique pour créer une nouvelle instance. Dans ce cas, l'attribut class ne doit pas être renseigné. L'attribut factory-bean doit préciser l'identifiant de l'objet géré par le conteneur qui encapsule la fabrique et l'attribut factory-method doit préciser le nom de la méthode à invoquer. Spring propose d'autres portées notamment celles dédiées aux applications web request, session et global-session. La valeur fournie est celle de la portée souhaitée singleton ou prototype. Par défaut, les beans ont une portée singleton: Le conteneur ne peut pas gérer la destruction d'un bean avec une portée prototype: Il est possible de définir des callbacks liés à l'initialisation et la destruction d'un bean qui seront invoqués par le conteneur.

L'interface InitializingBean définit la méthode afterPropertiesSet. Cette méthode peut contenir des traitements qui seront exécutés par le conteneur après l'initialisation d'une nouvelle instance du bean. Le résultat sera le même mais le bean ne sera pas lié à Spring. L'interface DisposeableBean définit la méthode destroy. Cette méthode peut contenir des traitements qui seront exécutés par le conteneur avant la suppression d'un bean du conteneur. Dans le fichier de configuration, il est possible de définir des méthodes d'initialisation et de destruction qui si elles sont présentes dans un bean seront automatiquement invoquées au moment opportun par le conteneur.

Sa valeur doit contenir le nom de la méthode. A partir de Spring 2. Il est possible de combiner ces différentes solutions. Dans ce cas, le conteneur utilise un ordre précis:. Le comportement par défaut du conteneur est d'instancier les singletons lors de son initialisation.

Ceci n'empêchera pas le conteneur d'instancier le singleton si celui-ci est une dépendance d'un autre singleton qui est instancié au démarrage du conteneur. Cet attribut est configuré au niveau du contexte et s'applique donc sur tous les beans gérés. Certaines valeurs de propriétés dans le fichier de configuration peuvent être extraites d'un fichier de properties.

Sa propriété location permet de préciser le chemin du fichier de properties. L'externalisation de certaines valeurs est très pratique notamment pour celles qui sont différentes selon l'environnement d'exécution. Spring définit aussi plusieurs autres espaces de nommage pour des usages plus particuliers: L'espace de nommage beans est obligatoire et est utilisé comme espace de nommage par défaut dans le fichier de configuration. Le schéma est défini dans le fichier xsd www.

Booléen qui précise si le bean est abstrait: Permet de préciser comment le bean sera injecté: Booléen qui précise si l'instance du bean peut être utilisée lors de l'injection de dépendances. Préciser les dépendances qui seront valorisées par le conteneur: Préciser un bean qui devra être initialisé avant que le bean soit instancié.

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Préciser un bean dont la méthode indiquée par l'attribut factory-method sera utilisée comme fabrique. Préciser une méthode statique du bean indiqué par l'attribut factory-bean qui sera utilisée par le conteneur comme une fabrique. Nom de la méthode d'initialisation qui sera invoquée une fois l'instance créée et les dépendances injectées.

Permet de préciser la portée du bean: Cette valeur peut être une référence sur un autre bean géré par le conteneur. Ce tag est particulièrement utile pour définir le contexte dans plusieurs fichiers, chacun contenant des définitions de beans par thème fonctionnel ou technique services, transactions, accès aux données, L'espace de nommage p de Spring est une alternative pour définir les propriétés des beans dans le fichier de configuration: L'espace de nommage ne possède pas de définition dans un schéma dédié, ce qui permet d'utiliser n'importe quel nom de propriété comme attribut.

Il est aussi possible de fournir une référence sur un autre bean comme valeur en utilisant le suffixe -ref. La propriété script-source permet de préciser le script qui contient la définition du bean. La propriété refresh-check-delay permet de préciser une durée en millisecondes entre chaque vérification de changement dans le script avec son rechargement le cas échéant. Si cet attribut n'est pas valorisé alors aucune vérification n'est faite.

Ce rafraîchissement permet de tenir compte d'une modification du script sans avoir à recharger la classe: Ce tag permet de définir un objet de type PropertyPlaceHolderConfigurer. Pour une configuration précise de cet objet, il faut définir sa propre instance explicitement. This allows beans to manipulate the BeanFactory that created them programmatically, through the org.

BeanFactory interface, or by casting the reference to a known subclass of this which exposes additional functionality. Primarily this would consist of programmatic retrieval of other beans. While there are cases when this capability is useful, it should generally be avoided, since it couples the code to Spring, and does not follow the Inversion of Control style, where collaborators are provided to beans as properties.

If a bean implements the org. BeanNameAware interface and is deployed in a BeanFactory, the BeanFactory will call the bean through this interface to inform the bean of the id it was deployed under. The callback will be Invoked after population of normal bean properties but before an init callback like InitializingBean 's afterPropertiesSet or a custom init-method.

The org. FactoryBean interface is to be implemented by objects that are themselves factories. The BeanFactory interface provides three method:. Object getObject : has to return an instance of the object this factory creates. The instance can possibly be shared depending on whether this factory returns singletons or prototypes.

Class getObjectType : has to return either the object type returned by the getObject method or null if the type isn't known in advance. A bean definition potentially contains a large amount of configuration information, including container specific information i. A child bean definition is a bean definition which inherits configuration data from a parent definition.

It is then able to override some values, or add others, as needed. Using parent and child bean definitions can potentially save a lot of typing. Effectively, this is a form of templating. When working with a BeanFactory programmatically, child bean definitions are represented by the ChildBeanDefinition class. Most users will never work with them on this level, instead configuring bean definitions declaratively in something like the XmlBeanFactory. In an XmlBeanFactory bean definition, a child bean definition is indicated simply by using the parent attribute, specifying the parent bean as the value of this attribute.

A child bean definition will use the bean class from the parent definition if none is specified, but can also override it. In the latter case, the child bean class must be compatible with the parent, i. A child bean definition will inherit constructor argument values, property values and method overrides from the parent, with the option to add new values.

The remaining settings will always be taken from the child definition: depends on , autowire mode , dependency check , singleton , lazy init. Note that in the example above, we have explicitly marked the parent bean definition as abstract by using the abstract attribute. In the case that the parent definition does not specify a class:. When a definition is considered abstract like this explicitly or implicitly , it's usable just as a pure template or abstract bean definition that will serve as parent definition for child definitions. Trying to use such an abstract parent bean on its own by referring to it as a ref property of another bean, or doing an explicit getBean call with the parent bean id, will result in an error.

Similarly, the container's internal preInstantiateSingletons method will completely ignore bean definitions which are considered abstract. Important Note : Application contexts but not simple bean factories will by default pre-instantiate all singletons. Therefore it is important at least for singleton beans that if you have a parent bean definition which you intend to use only as a template, and this definition specifies a class, you must make sure to set the abstract attribute to true , otherwise the application context will actually pre-instantiate it.

A BeanFactory is essentially nothing more than the interface for an advanced factory capable of maintaining a registry of different beans and their dependencies. The BeanFactory enables you to read bean definitions and access them using the bean factory. When using just the BeanFactory you would create one and read in some bean definitions in the XML format as follows:. Basically that's all there is to it. Using getBean String you can retrieve instances of your beans. You'll get a reference to the same bean if you defined it as a singleton the default or you'll get a new instance each time if you set singleton to false.

The client-side view of the BeanFactory is surprisingly simple. The BeanFactory interface has only five methods for clients to call:. Object getBean String : returns an instance of the bean registered under the given name. Depending on how the bean was configured by the BeanFactory configuration, either a singleton and thus shared instance or a newly created bean will be returned. A BeansException will be thrown when either the bean could not be found in which case it'll be a NoSuchBeanDefinitionException , or an exception occurred while instantiating and preparing the bean.

Object getBean String,Class : returns a bean, registered under the given name. The bean returned will be cast to the given Class. Furthermore, all rules of the getBean String method apply see above. If no bean corresponding to the given name could not be found, an exception will be thrown NoSuchBeanDefinitionException. String[] getAliases String : Return the aliases for the given bean name, if any were defined in the bean definition.

Sometimes there is a need to ask a BeanFactory for an actual FactoryBean instance itself, not the bean it produces. A bean post-processor is a java class which implements the org. BeanPostProcessor interface, which consists of two callback methods. When such a class is registered as a post-processor with the BeanFactory, for each bean instance that is created by the BeanFactory, the post-processor will get a callback from the BeanFactory before any initialization methods afterPropertiesSet and any declared init method are called, and also afterwords.

The post-processor is free to do what it wishes with the bean, including ignoring the callback completely. A bean post-processor will typically check for marker interfaces, or do something such as wrap a bean with a proxy. Some Spring helper classes are implemented as bean post-processors. It is important to know that a BeanFactory treats bean post-processors slightly differently than an ApplicationContext. An ApplicationContext will automatically detect any beans which are deployed into it which implement the BeanPostProcessor interface, and register them as post-processors, to be then called appropriately by the factory on bean creation.

Nothing else needs to be done other than deploying the post-processor in a similar fashion to any other bean. On the other hand, when using plain BeanFactories, bean post-processors have to manually be explicitly registered, with a code sequence such as the following:. Since this manual registration step is not convenient, and ApplictionContexts are functionally supersets of BeanFactories, it is generally recommended that ApplicationContext variants are used when bean post-processors are needed.

A bean factory post-processor is a java class which implements the org. BeanFactoryPostProcessor interface. It is executed manually in the case of the BeanFactory or automatically in the case of the ApplicationContext to apply changes of some sort to an entire BeanFactory, after it has been constructed.

Spring includes a number of pre-existing bean factory post-processors, such as PropertyResourceConfigurer and PropertyPlaceHolderConfigurer , both described below, and BeanNameAutoProxyCreator , very useful for wrapping other beans transactionally or with any other kind of proxy, as described later in this manual.

An ApplicationContext will detect any beans which are deployed into it which implement the BeanFactoryPostProcessor interface, and automatically use them as bean factory post-processors, at the appropriate time. Nothing else needs to be done other than deploying these post-processor in a similar fashion to any other bean.

Since this manual step is not convenient, and ApplictionContexts are functionally supersets of BeanFactories, it is generally recommended that ApplicationContext variants are used when bean factory post-processors are needed. The PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer , implemented as a bean factory post-processor, is used to externalize some property values from a BeanFactory definition, into another separate file in Java Properties format. This is useful to allow the person deploying an application to customize some key properties for example database URLs, usernames and passwords , without the complexity or risk of modifying the main XML definition file or files for the BeanFactory.

Consider a fragment from a BeanFactory definition, where a DataSource with placeholder values is defined:. In the example below, a datasource is defined, and we will configure some properties from an external Properties file. At runtime, we will apply a PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer to the BeanFactory which will replace some properties of the datasource:.

To use this with a BeanFactory, the bean factory post-processor is manually executed on it:. Note that ApplicationContexts are able to automatically recognize and apply beans deployed in them which implement BeanFactoryPostProcessor. This means that as described here, applying PropertyPlaceholderConfiguer is much more convenient when using an ApplicationContext. For this reason, it is recommended that users wishing to use this or other bean factory postprocessors use an ApplicationContext instead of a BeanFactory.

The PropertyPlaceHolderConfigurer doesn't only look for properties in the Properties file you specify, but also checks against the Java System properties if it cannot find a property you are trying to use. This behavior can be customized by setting the systemPropertiesMode property of the configurer. It has three values, one to tell the configurer to always override, one to let it never override and one to let it override only if the property cannot be found in the properties file specified.

The PropertyOverrideConfigurer , another bean factory post-processor, is similar to the PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer , but in contrast to the latter, the original definitions can have default values or no values at all for bean properties. If an overriding Properties file does not have an entry for a certain bean property, the default context definition is used.

Note that the bean factory definition is not aware of being overridden, so it is not immediately obvious when looking at the XML definition file that the override configurer is being used. In case that there are multiple PropertyOverrideConfigurers that define different values for the same bean property, the last one will win due to the overriding mechanism.

This example file would be usable against a BeanFactory definition which contains a bean in it called dataSource , which has driver and url properties. When setting bean properties as a string value, a BeanFactory ultimately uses standard JavaBeans PropertyEditors to convert these Strings to the complex type of the property. Spring pre-registers a number of custom PropertyEditors for example, to convert a classname expressed as a string into a real Class object.

Additionally, Java's standard JavaBeans PropertyEditor lookup mechanism allows a PropertyEditor for a class to be simply named appropriately and placed in the same package as the class it provides support for, to be found automatically.

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If there is a need to register other custom PropertyEditors, there are several mechanisms available. The most manual approach, which is not normally convenient or recommended, is to simply use the registerCustomEditor method of the ConfigurableBeanFactory interface, assuming you have a BeanFactory reference. The more convenient mechanism is to use a special bean factory post-processor called CustomEditorConfigurer. Although bean factory post-processors can be used semi-manually with BeanFactories, this one has a nested property setup, so it is strongly recommended that, as described here , it is used with the ApplicationContext, where it may be deployed in similar fashion to any other bean, and automatically detected and applied.

Note that all bean factories and application contexts automatically use a number of built-in property editors, through their use of something called a BeanWrapper to handle property conversions. The standard property editors that the BeanWrapper registers are listed in the next chapter. Additionally, ApplicationContexts also override or add an additional 3 editors to handle resource lookups in a manner appropriate to the specific application context type.

While the beans package provides basic functionality for managing and manipulating beans, often in a programmatic way, the context package adds ApplicationContext , which enhances BeanFactory functionality in a more framework-oriented style. Many users will use ApplicationContext in a completely declarative fashion, not even having to create it manually, but instead relying on support classes such as ContextLoader to automatically start an ApplicationContext as part of the normal startup process of a J2EE web-app. Of course, it is still possible to programmatically create an ApplicationContext.

The basis for the context package is the ApplicationContext interface, located in the org. Deriving from the BeanFactory interface, it provides all the functionality of BeanFactory. To allow working in a more framework-oriented fashion, using layering and hierarchical contexts, the context package also provides the following:. MessageSource , providing access to messages in, i18n-style. Event propagation to beans implementing the ApplicationListener interface.

Loading of multiple hierarchical contexts , allowing each to be focused on one particular layer, for example the web layer of an application. As the ApplicationContext includes all functionality of the BeanFactory, it is generally recommended that it be used over the BeanFactory, except for a few limited situations such as perhaps in an Applet, where memory consumption might be critical, and a few extra kilobytes might make a difference.

The following sections described functionality which ApplicationContext adds to basic BeanFactory capabilities. As already stated in the previous section, the ApplicationContext has a couple of features that distinguish it from the BeanFactory. Let us review them one-by-one. The ApplicationContext interface extends an interface called MessageSource , and therefore provides messaging i18n or internationalization functionality.

Together with the NestingMessageSource , capable of resolving hierarchical messages, these are the basic interfaces Spring provides to do message resolution. Let's quickly review the methods defined there:. String getMessage String code, Object[] args, String default, Locale loc : the basic method used to retrieve a message from the MessageSource. When no message is found for the specified locale, the default message is used.

Any arguments passed in are used as replacement values, using the MessageFormat functionality provided by the standard library. String getMessage String code, Object[] args, Locale loc : essentially the same as the previous method, but with one difference: no default message can be specified; if the message cannot be found, a NoSuchMessageException is thrown. String getMessage MessageSourceResolvable resolvable, Locale locale : all properties used in the methods above are also wrapped in a class named MessageSourceResolvable , which you can use via this method.

When an ApplicationContext gets loaded, it automatically searches for a MessageSource bean defined in the context. The bean has to have the name messageSource. If such a bean is found, all calls to the methods described above will be delegated to the message source that was found. If no message source was found, the ApplicationContext attempts to see if it has a parent containing a bean with the same name. If so, it uses that bean as the MessageSource. If it can't find any source for messages, an empty StaticMessageSource will be instantiated in order to be able to accept calls to the methods defined above.

Spring currently provides two MessageSource implementations.

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Both implement NestingMessageSource in order to do nested messaging. The StaticMessageSource is hardly ever used but provides programmatic ways to add messages to the source. The ResourceBundleMessageSource is more interesting and is the one we will provides an example for:. This assumes you have three resource bundles defined on your classpath called format , exceptions and windows.

Using the JDK standard way of resolving messages through ResourceBundles, any request to resolve a message will be handled. Event handling in the ApplicationContext is provided through the ApplicationEvent class and ApplicationListener interface. If a bean which implements the ApplicationListener interface is deployed into the context, every time an ApplicationEvent gets published to the ApplicationContext, that bean will be notified.

Essentially, this is the standard Observer design pattern. Spring provides three standard events:. Implementing custom events can be done as well. Simply call the publishEvent method on the ApplicationContext, specifying a parameter which is an instance of your custom event class implementing ApplicationEvent. Let's look at an example. First, the ApplicationContext:. Of course, this particular example could probably be implemented in better ways perhaps by using AOP features , but it should be sufficient to illustrate the basic event mechanism.

Many applications need to access resources. Resources could include files, but also things like web pages or NNTP newsfeeds. Spring provides a clean and transparent way of accessing resources in a protocol independent way. The ApplicationContext interface includes a method getResource String to take care of this. The Resource class defines a couple of methods that are shared across all Resource implementations:. A couple of Resource implementations are provided by Spring. They all need a String representing the actual location of the resource. Based upon that String, Spring will automatically choose the right Resource implementation for you.

When asking an ApplicationContext for a resource first of all Spring will inspect the resource location you're specifying and look for any prefixes. Depending on the implementation of the ApplicationContext more or less Resource implementations are available. The BeanFactory already offers a number of mechanisms to control the lifecycle of beans deployed in it such as marker interfaces like InitializingBean or DisposableBean , their configuration only equivalents such as the init-method and destroy-method attributes in an XmlBeanFactory config, and bean post-processors.

In an ApplicationContext, all of these still work, but additional mechanisms are added for customizing behavior of beans and the container. All marker interfaces available with BeanFactories still work. The ApplicationContext does add one extra marker interface which beans may implement, org. A bean which implements this interface and is deployed into the context will be called back on creation of the bean, using the interface's setApplicationContext method, and provided with a reference to the context, which may be stored for later interaction with the context.

Bean post-processors, java classes which implement the org. BeanPostProcessor interface, have already been mentioned. It is worth mentioning again here though, that post-processors are much more convenient to use in ApplicationContexts than in plain BeanFactories. In an ApplicationContext, any deployed bean which implements the above marker interface is automatically detected and registered as a bean post-processor, to be called appropriately at creation time for each bean in the factory. Bean factory post-processors, java classes which implement the org. BeanFactoryPostProcessor interface, have already been mentioned.

It is worth mentioning again here though, that bean factory post-processors are much more convenient to use in ApplicationContexts than in plain BeanFactories. In an ApplicationContext, any deployed bean which implements the above marker interface is automatically detected as a bean factory post-processor, to be called at the appropriate time.

It is worth mentioning here though, that it is generally more convenient to use it with an ApplicationContext, since the context will automatically recognize and apply any bean factory post-processors, such as this one, when they are simply deployed into it like any other bean. There is no need for a manual step to execute it.

As previously mentioned, standard JavaBeans PropertyEditors are used to convert property values expressed as strings to the actual complex type of the property. CustomEditorConfigurer , a bean factory post-processor, may be used to conveniently add support for additional PropertyEditors to an ApplicationContext. When things are properly set up, we want to be able to assign the type property as a string, which a PropertyEditor will behind the scenes convert into a real ExoticType object.

Finally, we use CustomEditorConfigurer to register the new PropertyEditor with the ApplicationContext, which will then be able to use it as needed. The target object can be specified directly or via a bean name. This value may then be used in another bean definition as a property value or constructor argument. This form does mean that there is no choice in the name of the bean, any reference to it will also have to use the same id, which is the path. Of curse, if used as an inner bean, there is no need to refer to it at all:.

The result type may be specifically set in the actual definition. This is not necessary for most use cases, but can be of use for some. Please see the JavaDocs for more info on this feature. It is typically used for retrieving public static final constants, which may then be used to set a property value or constructor arg for another bean. Here's an example which shows how a static field is exposed, by using the staticField property:. This means there is no longer any choice in what the bean id is so any other bean that refers to it will also have to use this longer name , but this form is very concise to define, and very convenient to use as an inner bean since the id doesn't have to be specified for the bean reference:.

It's also possible to access a non-static field of another bean, as described in the JavaDocs. Additionally, it is sometimes necessary to set a property on a bean, as the result of a method call on another bean in the container, or a static method call on any arbitrary class.


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For both of these purposes, a helper class called MethodInvokingFactoryBean may be used. This is a FactoryBean which returns a value which is the result of a static or instance method invocation. We would however recommend that for the second use case, factory-methods, described previously, are a better all around choice. An example in an XML based BeanFactory definition of a bean definition which uses this class to force some sort of static initialization:. Note that the definition for bean1 has used the depends-on attribute to refer to the force-init bean, which will trigger initializing force-init first, and thus calling the static initializer method, when bean1 is first initialized.

Here's an example of a bean definition which uses this class to call a static factory method:. An example of calling a static method then an instance method to get at a Java System property. Somewhat verbose, but it works. Note that as it is expected to be used mostly for accessing factory methods, MethodInvokingFactoryBean by default operates in a singleton fashion. The first request by the container for the factory to produce an object will cause the specified method invocation, whose return value will be cached and returned for the current and subsequent requests.

An internal singleton property of the factory may be set to false, to cause it to invoke the target method each time it is asked for an object. A static target method may be specified by setting the targetMethod property to a String representing the static method name, with targetClass specifying the Class that the static method is defined on.

Alternatively, a target instance method may be specified, by setting the targetObject property as the target object, and the targetMethod property as the name of the method to call on that target object. Arguments for the method invocation may be specified by setting the args property. It's often useful to split up container definitions into multiple XML files. One way to then load an application context which is configured from all these XML fragments is to use the application context constructor which takes multiple Resource locations.

With a bean factory, a bean definition reader can be used multiple times to read definitions from each file in turn. Generally, the Spring team prefers the above approach, since it keeps container configurations files unaware of the fact that they are being combined with others. However, an alternate approach is to from one XML bean definition file, use one or more instances of the import element to load definitions from one or more other files.

Any import elements must be placed before bean elements in the file doing the importing. Let's look at a sample:. In this example, external bean definitions are being loaded from 3 files, services. All location paths are considered relative to the definition file doing the importing, so services. As you can see, a leading slash is actually ignored, but given that these are considered relative paths, it is probably better form not to use the slash at all. The contents of the files being imported must be fully valid XML bean definition files according to the DTD, including the top level beans element.

As opposed to the BeanFactory, which will often be created programmatically, ApplicationContexts can be created declaratively using for example a ContextLoader. Of course you can also create ApplicationContexts programmatically using one of the ApplicationContext implementations. First, let's examine the ContextLoader and its implementations.

They both have the same functionality but differ in that the listener cannot be used in Servlet 2. Since the Servlet 2. A lot of 2. It is up to you as to which one you use, but all things being equal you should probably prefer ContextLoaderListener ; for more information on compatibility, have a look at the JavaDoc for the ContextLoaderServlet.

The listener inspects the contextConfigLocation parameter. When it does exist, it'll separate the String using predefined delimiters comma, semi-colon and space and use the values as locations where application contexts will be searched for. The servlet will use the contextConfigLocation parameter just as the listener does. The majority of the code inside an application is best written in a Dependency Injection Inversion of Control style, where that code is served out of a BeanFactory or ApplicationContext container, has its own dependencies supplied by the container when it is created, and is completely unaware of the container.

However, for the small glue layers of code that are sometimes needed to tie other code together, there is sometimes a need for singleton or quasi-singleton style access to a BeanFactory or ApplicationContext. For example, third party code may try to construct new objects directly Class. While the BeanFactory ideally does not have to be a singleton, it may be unrealistic in terms of memory usage or initialization times when using beans in the BeanFactory such as a Hibernate SessionFactory for each bean to use its own, non-singleton BeanFactory.

As another example, in a complex J2EE apps with multiple layers i. All the ApplicationContext variants may be constructed from multiple definition files in this fashion. However, if there are multiple sibling web-apps at the top of the hierarchy, it is problematic to create an ApplicationContext for each web-app which consists of mostly identical bean definitions from lower layers, as there may be issues due to increased memory usage, issues with creating multiple copies of beans which take a long time to initialize i.

Logiciels espions pour portable

The result is that bean definitions for lower layers are loaded only as needed, and loaded only once. Beans, BeanFactory et l'ApplicationContext. BeanFactory et BeanDefinitions - les bases. La BeanFactory.

Tutoriel sur la réalisation d'application Web simple avec Spring

La classe du bean. Création d'un bean via un constructeur. Création d'un bean via une methode de fabrique statique. Creation d'un bean via une méthode de fabrique d'instance. Les identifiants d'un bean id et name. Propriétés, collaborateurs, détection automatique et vérification de dépendance.

Spring application context programatically (without xml) example

Positionnement des propriétés de beans et collaborateurs. Résolution des Arguments de Constructeur. Correspondance des Types des Arguments de Constructeur. Index des Arguments de Constructeur. Les propriétés de bean et les arguments de constructeur détaillés. Injection par Méthode. Injection par méthode de recherche. Remplacement arbitraire de méthode. Utilisation de depends-on. Autowiring collaborators. Autowiring modes Mode Explanation no No autowiring at all. Bean references must be defined via a ref element.

This is the default, and changing this is discouraged for larger deployments, since explicitly specifying collaborators gives greater control and clarity. To some extent, it is a form of documentation about the structure of a system. This option will inspect the BeanFactory and look for a bean named exactly the same as the property which needs to be autowired.

For example, if you have a bean definition which is set to autowire by name, and it contains a master property that is, it has a setMaster If there is more than one, a fatal exception is thrown, and this indicates that you may not use byType autowiring for that bean. If there are no matching beans, nothing happens; the property is not set.

If there isn't exactly one bean of the constructor argument type in the bean factory, a fatal error is raised. If a default constructor is found, byType gets applied. Checking for dependencies. Dependency checking modes Mode Explanation none No dependency checking. Properties of the bean which have no value specified for them are simply not set.

Customizing the nature of a bean. Lifecycle interfaces. Knowing who you are. Abstract and child bean definitions. Interacting with the BeanFactory. A BeansException will be thrown when either the bean could not be found in which case it'll be a NoSuchBeanDefinitionException , or an exception occurred while instantiating and preparing the bean Object getBean String,Class : returns a bean, registered under the given name. Furthermore, all rules of the getBean String method apply see above boolean isSingleton String : determines whether or not the bean definition or bean instance registered under the given name is a singleton or a prototype.

If no bean corresponding to the given name could not be found, an exception will be thrown NoSuchBeanDefinitionException String[] getAliases String : Return the aliases for the given bean name, if any were defined in the bean definition. Obtaining a FactoryBean, not its product. Customizing beans with BeanPostprocessors. Customizing bean factories with BeanFactoryPostprocessors. The PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer.

The PropertyOverrideConfigurer. Registering additional custom PropertyEditors. Introduction to the ApplicationContext. MessageSource , providing access to messages in, i18n-style Access to resources , such as URLs and files Event propagation to beans implementing the ApplicationListener interface Loading of multiple hierarchical contexts , allowing each to be focused on one particular layer, for example the web layer of an application.

Rechargement continu du contexte d'application Spring et closing persistence - Spring Web Java

Added functionality of the ApplicationContext. Using the MessageSource. Propagating events.